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Conventional Treatment

For each type of waste water there is an ideal treatment which must be designed for its specific characteristics such as pollutant load, presence of contaminants, flow, disposal and necessary efficiency.

It’s well known that there are a number of technologies being used, however the three main waste water treatments are three: primary, secondary and tertiary treatments.


Primary Treatment

Railing and static sieve – removal of coarse solids

Decantation, grit chamber – technique for physical removal of settleable solids (e.g. sand and slurry);

Flotation – technology for physical-chemical separation of particles which are naturally floatable. It may apply the dissolved air technique to increase efficiency. (e.g. oil, fats)

Equalization - it is used for the equalization of flow and pollutant load in secondary treatment. It may be necessary adjustments of pH and conductivity to improve efficiency of further treatment. 


    Secondary Treatment

    Conventional treatment systems promote decomposition of organic matter in biological sewage where organic matter is depurated using specific heterogeneous microorganisms with or without oxygen.

    Anaerobic Systems - the anaerobic reactor increases degradation of organic matter. Biomass may be converted into biogas.

    - Up flow anaerobic sludge blanket and anaerobic filter.

    Aerobic Systems - Mechanized process where the removal of organic matter is made by growing bacteria in the aeration tank which produces a biomass to be sedimented in the decanter.

    - Activated Slurry – aerated reactor; secondary decanter.



      Tertiary treatments of waste water are used to remove specific pollutants not removed by the primary or secondary treatment. Some of these specific pollutants might be organic matter, heavy metals, non-biodegradable compounds among others.

      Physical Filtration – filter process through filter medium such as sand, gravel and others.

      Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration and Osmose Reserve – these are technologies used for the removal of physical impurities in the water through membranes. The choice of the membrane will vary according to the size of the pollutants to be removed.

      Electrooxidation - This is used to oxide pollutants, see link technologies.

      Adsorption - Filters of activated coal are used so the pollutants are adsorbed both chemically and physically. 


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